The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa
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The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa

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southern.africa

Edited by Leroy Vail

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
UC Press E-Books Collection, 1982-2004
Berkeley · Los Angeles · Oxford
© 1989 The Regents of the University of California
Preface
Notes on Contributors
collapse section Introduction: Ethnicity in Southern African History
Interpretations
A History
A Model
The Situation Today
collapse section 1—  The Beginnings of Afrikaner Ethnic Consciousness, 1850–1915
Introduction
Ambiguous Identities Before 1850
Early Stimulants of Afrikaner Ethnic Consciousness
The Culture Brokers of the Western Cape during the 1870s
The Political Mobilization of Dutch Afrikaners after 1870
The Faltering of Ethnic Consciousness in the 1880s
The Institutionalization of Ethnic Consciousness in the Cape to 1915
Ethnic Revivals in the Free State and the Transvaal 1890–1915
Revived Ethnic Mobilization After 1910
Conclusion
collapse section 2—  Afrikaner Women and the Creation of Ethnicity in a Small South African Town, 1902–1950
Introduction
Towards a Unified Afrikaner Community
A Karoo Town with a Poor White Problem
Afrikaner Women and Their Concerns After 1900
Afrikaner Women Organize in Cradock
The Social Concerns of the A C V V
The A C V V and Afrikaner Education
Women and the Maintenance of Ethnic Boundaries
Conclusion
collapse section 3—  Exclusion, Classification and Internal Colonialism: The Emergence of Ethnicity Among the Tsonga-Speakers of South Africa
Introduction
The Migrations of Tsonga-speakers
Missionaries and the Definition of the ‘Tsonga Tribe’
The African Mode of Self-Identification
Africans and the Land
The Erosion of the African Position
The Waning of Chiefly Power
The Consolidation of a Tsonga/Shangaan Ethnic Awareness
The Role of the Apartheid System
Conclusion
collapse section 4—  Missionaries, Migrants and the Manyika: The Invention of Ethnicity in Zimbabwe
Introduction: Politics Through a Tribal Lens
Ethnicity and History
Ethnicity, History and the Early Colonial Administration
Language and Ethnicity: the American Methodist Episcopal Church
Language and Ethnicity: the Anglican Church
Language and Ethnicity: the Roman Catholic Church
Manyika Identity and the Migrant Labour Factor
The Movement Towards a Shona Identity
Conclusion
collapse section 5—  Tribalism in the Political History of Malawi
Introduction
An Ethnographic Mélange in the North
The Seeds of Tumbuka Ethnic Identity
Ethnic Ideology and the Livingstonia Mission
Chiefly Powers and Social Control
Ngoni Ethnic Consciousness
Language Policy and the Creation of Northern Regionalism
Chiefs, Planters, and Immigrants in the South
Tribalism from Above: the Strengthening of the Yao Chiefs
Dissatisfactions in the Central Province
The Focusing of African Discontent
Malawian Politics and the Rise of Chewa Ethnicity
collapse section 6—  History, Ethnicity and Change in the ‘Christian Kingdom’ of Southeastern Zaire
Identity, Conflict and History
Enclave of Order/ Seat of Dissent: a Christian Kingdom in Central Africa
Two Culture Brokers for a ‘Tabwa’ Identity
Conclusion
collapse section 7—  Patriotism, Patriarchy and Purity: Natal and the Politics of Zulu Ethnic Consciousness
Introduction
Ethnic Ideology in the Inter-war Years
Social Disintegration and Changing Zulu Mores
The Selection and Assembling of an Ethnic Ideology
Neo-Traditionalism and the ‘Proper’ Conduct of Zulu Women
‘Bantu Dancing’ as a Focus for Ethnic Ambiguity
collapse section 8—  Coloured Identity and Coloured Politics in the Western Cape Region of South Africa
Introduction
Bullets and Ballots
The Critical Years (Circa 1890–1905)
The Rear-guard
Conclusion
collapse section 9—  ‘We are all Portuguese!’ Challenging the Political Economy of Assimilation: Lourenco Marques, 1870–1933
Introduction and Perspective
Southern Mozambique in the Late Nineteenth Century Regional Economy
The Origins of the Black Elite—Trade and Influence
Changing Demography and Social Relations
Portugal’s Civilizing Mission: Engineering Inequality
Challenging Assimilation: ‘We are all Portuguese!’
The Laws of Exception
João Albasini and the Challenge to ‘Assimilated’ Status
The Paralysis of Elite Black Opposition in the 1930s
collapse section 10—  A Nation Divided? The Swazi in Swaziland and the Transvaal, 1865–1986
Introduction: The Swazi of South Africa
The Partition of the Swazi People
The Swazi Elite and the Changing Political Economy
Whites and Blacks Press for ‘Retribalization’
Sobhuza II and Ethnic Mobilization
Sobhuza II and the Swazi of South Africa
Political Developments in Swaziland After World War II
The Cultural Element in Swazi Politics
Ethnic Mobilization Falters Amongst South African Swazi
Politics and History in a Bantustan Under Apartheid
Conclusion
collapse section 11—  The Formation of the Political Culture of Ethnicity in the Belgian Congo, 1920–1959
A Prolegomenon
The Invention of ‘the Luba’ in the Belgian Congo
The Growth of a Common Luba Culture’
The Entrenching of a New Luba Identity
The Contradictions in being a Luba
Women and Ethnicity
Conclusion
collapse section 12—  The ‘Wild’ and ‘Lazy’ Lamba: Ethnic Stereotypes on the Central African Copperbelt
Introduction
The Lamba, Slave Raiding and the Advent of Colonial Rule
Early Colonialism and Ethnic Stigmatization
Poverty, Prestige and African Stigmatization 1930–1960
The Lamba in the Northern Rhodesian Towns
Lamba Resentment
Conclusion
collapse section 13—  From Ethnic Identity to Tribalism: The Upper Zambezi Region of Zambia, 1830–1981
Introduction
The Luvale and the Lunda
The Upper Zambezi Slave Trade, 1830–1907
The Early Administration of Balovale Sub-District, C. 1907-C. 1930
The Evolution of the Colonial Political Economy 1920–1960
The Luvale History Project, 1938–1981
Conclusion
collapse section 14—  Ethnicity and Pseudo-Ethnicity in the Ciskei
Introduction: The Ciskei’s Land and People
The Ciskei Versus the Transkei in Historical Perspective
Mfengu-Rharhabe Rivalry and the Rise of Lennox Sebe
Resettlement and Ethnicity
Lennox Sebe Changes His Tune
The Threat From Transkei
Pseudo-Ethnicity: The ‘Making’ of a ‘Nation’
Conclusion

 

expand section Notes
expand section Index
The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa

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